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Atomic Theory is the study of atoms. Atoms are the smallest forms of matter that can still be considered/recognized as elements. Atoms are what make up everything on our earth, from molecules to monkeys. Atoms are joined together to make molecules, which are in turn joined together to make everything else. To give you an idea of the size of an atom, Encarta Online describes it as being "so small that a single drop of water could contain more than a million million billion atoms". I think they could've used more scientific terms, but you get the idea at least.
In the early half of the 19th century, John Dalton (a chemist, who many consider the person who started the atomic theory) proved that atoms are always joined together basically the same way, and that the smallest part of a chemical compound was a molecule. He said that "All atoms of an element have the same chemical behavior, but different elements have atoms with different chemical properties."
Scientists weigh gases by holding the same amount of a gas in a container and then wighing it. In the 20th century, most scientists used oxygen as the standard gas to compare other gases' weights. It is relativly easy to measure the weights of liquids and sloids, the same procedure for gas is followed, more or less. In the early 1960s, though, the international union of chemistry and physics agreed that there would be a new standard, carbon isotope (carbon-12).
British physicist Ernest Rutherford found and proved that an atom's mass is concentrated in its its nucleus, which is the center of the atom. H...
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